You can draw parallels between various elements of the text and things you have experienced. For example, of a major feature of the text is gender inequality, you might draw a parallel with an example of how gender inequality has affected you or your friends. If the text talks about relationships between parents and children, you can reflect on how your experiences with your own parents or your parents' experience with your grandparents might help you understand the relationship dynamics portrayed in the text.
Analogies are often about types of relationships. For example, you might read about a powerful landlord bullying a tenant farmer in the 18th century and be reminded of a strong jock bullying a weaker kid in a schoolyard. The key is the similarity of the bullying relationship.