I do not think that whether or not Shakespeare had a sound knowledge of a ship at sea can be stated with a great deal of confidence based on act 1, scene 1. Most of the scene is made up of drama between men arguing and fearing for their lives about the storm—this does not necessarily prove that Shakespeare knows about sailing. What I can say is that Shakespeare gives readers and audiences the appearance that he knows about sailing. This is because he uses a bunch of vocabulary associated with sailors and ships—one of the characters is the "boatswain." Then he has orders being given that name parts of a ship or specific sails:
Take in the topsail.—Tend to th' master’s whistle.—
Blow, till thou burst thy wind, if room enough!
Finally, Shakespeare has the boatswain barking orders about where to steer the ship.
Lay her a-hold, a-hold! Set her two courses off to sea again.
All of these jargon-filled lines give the impression that Shakespeare has some kind of working knowledge of ships, crews, and proper sailing.