The psychoanalytic approach can be applied to A Clockwork Orange in two ways. One way is to try and analyze the book itself, as well as its protagonist Alex. The other is to see how it is used within the book—in the form of the Ludovico Technique.
Firstly, the novel itself has been a very common subject of psychoanalysis and a lot of the critique it received revolved around this. Alex is a deeply disturbed individual, who can safely be called a sociopath. He is incapable of feeling any real empathy for his victims or taking responsibility for the suffering he causes. To that end, what's wrong with him is quite clear.
Other characters in the novel are a different case, however. Having a protagonist like Alex works kind of like a cover for the rest—compared to him, the others seem less bad. On closer inspection, though, there are very few genuinely positive characters in the book. Most of them submit to the same impulses, but to a lesser degree. In Part 3, Alex goes through several brutal...
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