You can study literature by doing the following five things:
1. Get a list of the best literary writings (novels, short stories, poetry, drama) from the past: those considered the best writing of their particular era. Keep this list handy and pick titles, based on symopsis' that intrigue and interest you. Then start reading!. Pick one, take your time, and methodically go through your list over the course of a year.
2. Do the same as above - only choose titles from contemporary writers who are excelling has skillful literary writers.
3. Talk to an English teacher at your high school or get in touch with an English professor at a university for advice on how best to study literature, beyond just doing a one-time reading of a work. They will prsent to you advice on studying Character, Theme(s), Point-Of-View (POV), Plot Development, Understatement, Metaphor, and more.
4. Talk to others, for example, through a literary book club, to gain others' opinion of significant literary works.
5. As time allows, and based on your level of interest, go to book fairs, book trade shows, and book/poetry readings and talk to the authors themselves, to gain insight into their work and how and why they write.