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The scientific stream of Edward Thorndike describes not the process of how adults learn but rather describes adult minds seeking after new knowledge by implementing concrete and rigorous investigation. The scientific stream led to the recommendation that adult learners be given foundational information instead of being told only the applications of information. This stream describes how adults have different intersts from children.
The artistic stream of Eduard Lindeman describes adult learning through analysis of experience (experiential versus experimental) and through cognitive processes of intuition. This stream describes how adults learn, the mechanism, the process of adult learning. This stream reversed the pedagogic (child-to-teacher) order of instruction that named the child as secondary to the teacher and subject content. It inverted that order in andragogic (adult-to-teacher) order of instruction so that the adult learner is primary and the teacher-subject matter are secondary.
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