Bureaucratic viewpoint refers to the model of management developed by Max Weber (1864-1920). Weber developed a system of management he called bureaucracy, which literally means management by departments. Bureaucracy, as proposed by Weber relies on methods such as:
- Division of labour: Dividing the total work of an organization in clearly defined positions.
- Hierarchy:arranging the various position an organization having a clear hierarchical structure.,
- Formalized rules: Developing formal rules and procedures for all work to be performed and decision to be taken. It was envisaged that these rules will identify and prescribe the best way of doing every job in the organization.
- Impersonality: subjective discretion to be eliminated totally. Irrespective of the person occupying a position, the work will be performed in the same way as it will be dictated by the formal rules and procedures rather than subjective judgements. Further the authority of person should be based entirely on the position occupied rather than on personal charisma.
- Selection and promotion base on ability:It is supposed that there is one best person for every job, and the management mus try to find such best person for every job.
The bureaucratic model of management is found to be very effective for managing simple and repetitive activities under stable environment. However this style of management also tends to promote rigidity, and therefore is not very suitable for organization operating in changing or uncertain environment. Also it is not suitable for businesses requiring high degree of innovation.