A "logo" is defined as an identifying design that represents a company or product. In the case of resume writing, the "company" or "product" would be you and your skills.
"Letterhead" is defined as the uniform printed heading at the top of a letter or other document used by an entity (business or individual) that identifies what are now called "contact details": name, address including city and state (and country), email(s), phone number(s).
There are two major ways that the inclusion of a personalized logo and letterhead can enhance the impact of a resume. The first way is that these elements show a polish of professionalism since these are long established standard elements of professional communication.
The second way is that, with a printed logo and letterhead, all related documents show a cohesive unity and, again, a professional standard and a professional attention to detail. It is common that the only documents required for job applications are a resume and a cover letter, yet it does happen that proficiency exam results, samples of work, portfolio samples, and other auxiliary documents are requested of job applicants. In such cases, a logo and letterhead unify all elements of the application.
Take caution though because designing a logo can "backfire," in other words, it can lead to undesirable results. A poorly chosen logo can present an undesirable image; can narrow your range of corporate culture "fit"; can send a negative, limiting message; can appear unprofessional and unpolished and reveal a surprising lack of thoughtfulness and attention to detail. Think carefully, get professional advice and choose objectively when selecting a logo (and letterhead) design, especially in conservative fields like business, finance, education, science.
A logo and letterhead can enhance the impact of a resume and application wen presented to a potential employer. Creative fields such as marketing, advertising and public relations are excellent opportunitites for applicants to use their resume to get noticed. A logo can personify the applicate and show their design skills. Today's competitive marketplace forces applicants to be creative to gain an edge.
It is important to note that when developing a more creative resume, it should still be professional. The resume should be free from errors, neat and provide the necessary information such as address, phone, email, previous work experience.
In the end, the resume is a tool to help market yourself. The idea of personal branding has grown tremendously in the last five years. The ability to market and promote your achievements and skills are necessary to gain employment in this competitive market. By branding yourself, you can create a way of differentiating your resume and talent from the other applicants.