How are both Hamlet and Laertes motivated by revenge in Hamlet?

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On the most basic level, each of them wants to avenge his father's murder. When Hamlet's father's ghost first tells him that he was murdered, Hamlet is desperate for the details so that he can get to work on his revenge. He says,

Haste me to know 't, that...

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On the most basic level, each of them wants to avenge his father's murder. When Hamlet's father's ghost first tells him that he was murdered, Hamlet is desperate for the details so that he can get to work on his revenge. He says,

Haste me to know 't, that I, with wings as swift
As meditation or the thoughts of love,
May sweep to my revenge. (1.5.35-37)

Hamlet is anxious to hear who has done this terrible thing so that he can swiftly exact his revenge for his father's murder. Later in this scene, he talks about how out of whack everything is in Denmark, and he believes it is his responsibility to "set it right!" (1.5.211).

Much later in the play, after Hamlet mistakenly murders Polonius, believing him to be his murderous uncle, Claudius, hiding behind an arras in his mother's bedroom, Laertes returns, ready to learn the truth of his father's death and punish the responsible party. When the queen tells him to be calm, he says,

That drop of blood that's calm proclaims me
bastard,
Cries "cuckold" to my father, bands the harlot
Even here between the chaste unsmirched brow
Of my true mother. (4.5.130-134)

In other words, Laertes says that he cannot be calm or else he would be behaving as though he were not his father's son. He means that it simply isn't proper for him to be calm right now; a good son should rage when he believes his father has been killed dishonorably.

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Both Hamlet and Laertes are motivated to avenge the deaths of their fathers, but they go about seeking their revenge in dramatically different ways. Towards the beginning of the play, Hamlet is visited by his father's ghost, who explains to him how he was assassinated by Claudius in the orchard and mandates that Hamlet seek revenge. Hamlet experiences conflicting feelings about avenging his father's death and hesitates to kill Claudius.

In the first half of the play, Hamlet struggles to trust the apparition and fears for his soul. In the second half of the play, Hamlet contemplates how to exact revenge and misses an opportunity to kill Claudius while he is praying. Hamlet is hesitant to kill Claudius because he does not want his soul to go to heaven. Once Hamlet returns from England, he is depicted as a changed man and is willing to avenge his father's death, which he does at the end of play during the chaotic, tragic fencing match.

Similarly, Laertes also wishes to avenge his father's death, but he is also motivated to avenge Ophelia's death. After speaking with Claudius, Laertes learns that Hamlet killed Polonius and is also responsible for his sister's madness. Unlike Hamlet, Laertes is quick to take action and agrees to duel Hamlet in a fencing match. Laertes also ensures that he will kill Hamlet by wielding a poison-tipped sword.

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Both Hamlet and Laertes are driven by a desire for vengeance. Hamlet, of course, has a mandate from his father's ghost to avenge his death. Hamlet's quest for revenge represents the main thrust of the plot, as he vacillates, hesitates, and reflects on the evil he witnesses around him. He even passes on one chance to kill his uncle, in a memorable scene in which he encounters him praying. By the middle of the fourth act, however, is determined to gain revenge. Reflecting on the courage shown by young Fortinbras and his army, who are marching through Denmark to fight a battle, he swears:

O, from this time forth, 
My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth!

Laertes, on the other hand, is driven to avenge his father's death, as well as that of Ophelia. He blames Hamlet for both, and swears to gain revenge:

And so have I a noble father lost; 
A sister driven into desperate terms, 
Whose worth, if praises may go back again, 
Stood challenger on mount of all the age
For her perfections. But my revenge will come.

When Claudius and Laertes discover that Hamlet has returned from his trip to England (where, of course, Claudius hoped to have him killed) the King enlists a very willing Laertes in a plot to murder Hamlet. Laertes insists that he be allowed to kill Hamlet himself, even to "cut his throat i' the church," and Claudius agrees. In the climactic final scene, of course, both Hamlet and Laertes gain their revenge, though it comes at the cost of their young lives.

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