Birch trees are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, especially in colder northern regions. These trees have adapted to survive in such an environment. Some of the adaptations are as follows:
1) The branches of birch are flexible and thus snow is unable to break them.
2) Birch lose their leaves during the winter season, minimizing moisture loss.
3) The leaves of birch are small in size, which ensures minimal water loss while maintaining the photosynthetic ability of the plant.
4) The bark of birch is thick, durable, and resistant to decay, which allows it to protect the inner wood.
5) The roots of birch are shallow and spread over a wide area, enabling them to capture the moisture from a large area and also to obtain oxygen.
These adaptations allow the birch tree to survive in the environmental conditions normally experienced by these plants.
Hope this helps.