How are antibodies produced?
A child is given a measles vaccination. Explain how the child becomes immune to measles.
I have answered this question below -
"This is a case of "artificial active immunity." The child is given an injection of the antigen (measles virus). His or her body produces the antibodies; memory T cells "remember" the antigen and immediately respond the next time the antigen appears. The immune system's response is so fast that the virus never gets a chance to develop."
I have been told by my teacher to add the answer to the following question to my answer above -
Q) How are antibodies produced?
Please answer the question above?
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The relationship between macrophages and lymphocytes which are both found in case of infections is important in curing the infection. The macrophages consume the bacteria and break down the antigens. Bacterial peptides go through a similar process. The b cells go through repeated cell division and form colonies of cells that secrete the antibody. As the cells begin to recognize the antigens, the cell colonies continue to grow, and they all secrete the antibody which then joins to the bacteria whereby the white cells consume it and break it down.
When infection or a foreign invader enters the body human macrophage spherical lymphocytes travel to the area of the invader. The macrophage then breaks down the bacteria breaking them down into proteins that form peptide chains. The presence of the peptide chains alert lymphocytes. Once the lymphocytes called T-cells identify the presence of the peptide chains as they are attached to the macrophage, they turn on the antibody protection. The cells begin to divide and enlarge and change to secrete plasma cells. The formed antibodies also bind to the bacteria and allows for the white cells to deplete the bacteria/invader. Antibodies and plasma work together sometimes and annihilated bacteria as well.
On the basis of immunity stands protection substances formation, called antibodies.
Antibodies are complex chemicals which are produced by the human body, in response to the sliding in the blood of many foreign substances (antigens) such as germs, viruses, parasites, etc.. Also, antibodies are formed when in the body enter (by digestive or injections) different substances such as serums and vaccines. Antibody production begins immediately after penetration of foreign substance (antigen) in the body, but it must pass 7-10 days after contact with antigen that the body to produce enough antibodies to fight the disease and to be found using laboratory analyzes.
Antibodies are specific for each pathogen for each disease, they persisting in the body even after curing the disease, months and years, sometimes for life.
Antibodies are witnessing a past infection (natural immunization) or vaccination (artificial immunization ). These antibodies are found in blood, urine, milk, body tissue, etc. where they can be put in evidence by immunological analysis. Thus, putting in touch, in a tube, the antibodies from the serum with antigen prepared in the laboratory ,ocurres an antigen-antibody reaction, which is visible with the opened eyes, by various laboratory techniques.
Since the blood antibody is taken from blood serum of sick or healthy man, the analyzes are also called serological. In some cases of diseases, knowing the specific antibodies, it can be analyzed and found the antigen, which is unknown.
So it is handled in the laboratory, in diagnosis of influenza, viral hepatitis (A antigen), etc..Immunological analysis are based on immunological reaction (union) of the specific antigen and specific antibodies in serum, which is investigating.
Antigen-antibody reaction can be made either on the tube or on human skin. These tests are made for detection of those diseases where is not possible to highlight the disease-causing pathogen (germ, virus, etc.), for some reasons.In the diseases caused by viruses (influenza, measles, mumps, polio, hepatitis, etc.), immunological analysis investigates traces of disease, namely antibodies.
Acquired immunity,develops during the life time of an individual and refers to the immunity,which a specific individual displays against a specific pathogen.This is frequently related to the presence of antibodies or interferon in the blood.Actively acquired immunity may be either natural or artificial.
It is the most common method of immunization or vaccination.The immunogens are injected in the body in controlled quanity to stimulate the production of immunoglobulins.Killed and attenuated strains of bacteria and viruses are now used widely for immunization against many diseases like measles,typhoi,small pox etc.Attenuated organisms produce mild infection and induce natural immunity.
I'm quoting from the following website the answer to your question: http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/monoclonal.php
"Process by which large quantities of antibodies (targeted against a particular antigen X) can be produced:
A mouse is immunized by injection of an antigen X to stimulate the production of antibodies targeted against X. The antibody forming cells are isolated from the mouse's spleen.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing single antibody-forming cells to tumor cells grown in culture. The resulting cell is called a hybridoma.
Each hybridoma produces relatively large quantities of identical antibody molecules. By allowing the hybridoma to multiply in culture, it is possible to produce a population of cells, each of which produces identical antibody molecules. These antibodies are called "monoclonal antibodies" because they are produced by the identical offspring of a single, cloned antibody producing cell.
Once a monoclonal antibody is made, it can be used as a specific probe to track down and purify the specific protein that induced its formation."
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