The narrator of Homer's Illiad speaks from a third-person omniscient point of view. Specifically, the narrator is the poet himself. Homer appears to know the gist of the historical events that he means to depict, but he calls out to a muse to give him the details he needs to really tell the story. The muse, of course, is connected with the gods and so has omniscient understanding; thus, she also the ability to tell Homer the details that he's searching for so that he may write them and pass them down in the form of The Illiad. This omniscience does extend to the thoughts of characters, although the poem deals directly with the character's actions more so than with their thoughts or emotions.
The Iliad's narrator is third-person, but interestingly, he isn't a direct witness to the action he describes. He is telling a story from the past—in a sense, his epic is a piece of historical fiction. The narrator is able to tell the story by invoking his muse to inspire him, and much of the
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