help please-learning theoires  Everyday at 12 noon, Paige faces the same dilemma. The local siren sounds to signal the mid-day and Paige’s 4-year old daughter, Natasha begin to cry. This was not always the case, but a month ago, there was a small kitchen fire at their residence. The day of the fire Robyn attempted to put out the fire with an extinguisher but decided it was better to call 911. Paige grabbed Natasha and ran out of the house. Men and women hurried out of large, loud trucks wearing black suits and helmets. They seemed to storm onto her property and into her house, and Natasha was left confused and afraid by the experience. Since then, almost like clockwork, every day when the siren sounds, Natasha clings to her mother and burst into tears. Paige has discovered the fastest way to comfort her daughter is to give her a lollipop. When she receives candy, Natasha calms down immediately. Paige, however, is not convinced that she is doing the right thing as a parent. I need help with the questions below?

examine the learning theories including classical conditioning, operant conditioning and cognitive learning.

  • how each of the learning theories can be applied to the learning that has taken
  • place in the case study
  • identify the main components of the theories that are evident in the case study
  • make recommendations based on theory on how to address the problem

Please help I dont understand

Expert Answers

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To use learning theory, remember that Natasha is associating the mid-day siren with a frightening experience. I suggest eliminating the association. Take her to the fire house, and explain what is happening. Go just before noon, and let her sound the signal. Hopefully she will find if fun and see it's not scary.
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As a parent, I can help with recommendation for how to help Natashia without the use of candy.  Natashia is clearly frightened by her experience.  It would be helpful for her to see that she does not need to be afraid.  It might be helpful to take her to the fire department and let her see the firefighters put on their uniforms.  The masks and gear of the firemen could be frightening to a small child.  Letting her experience these new things in a non-confrontations and calm manner could be very helpful.  Of course, this might need to be done in stages or it might need to be done more than once for Natashia to realize that she doesn't need to be afraid of the firemen.  Then, it might be helpful to show her different types of sirens and allow her to experience the meaning behind each one.  Right now the child is associating the sound with her negative experience.  In the long run, Natashia will need to have positive experiences with the things that frightened her and she will need to be desensitised to the sound of the siren.  Once she associates this experience with positive rather than negative, she will no longer be frightened of the sound.  While associating candy with the siren is one way to change the negative to a positive association, it is perhaps not the healthiest way for a young child.

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I don't think that anyone should answer your question by doing your work for you, but it's completely fair, I think, for us to help you understand how you might approach the assignment.

I recommend that you begin by drafting the body of your answer. That part of the answer should come in three sections, with each section focusing on one of the three learning theories that is named. I understand the "place in the case study" to mean that you should draw specific details from the case study that you are given to support your answers.

For the section on classical conditioning theory, for example, focus on the pairing of the sirens with a sudden, traumatizing event (note how the event is described using threatening imagery) and on the subsequent postive reinforcement (the giving of a lollipop) that the parent has been giving to the child in response to repetitions of the conditioned behavior. In other words, the parent may actually be conditioning her child to cry by giving candy when the child cries. To address the problem, perhaps the reward should be given for not crying (rather than for crying), and that reward should become less consistent or less predictable after a while (sometimes a lollipop, sometimes praise), in keeping with the idea of intermittant reinforcement.

For the operant conditioning section, perhaps focus on how Natasha has learned something on her own, such as the following: Sirens may be followed immediately by traumatizing events, firefighters are scary, and the parent is my only place to seek safety and comfort. There must be more to say here, of course. You may also want to focus on what the parent has "learned" something, too. To address the problem, perhaps both the parent and the child need to learn something new. Would a trip to the fire station help the child?

I'm not familiar enough with cognitive theory to be able to explain it in a way that is distinctive.

I hope that these comments get you started.

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