Hello, please give detailed advantages and limitations of; testing for halide ions using silver nitrate followed by ammonia solution. The results for this test are in the image provided. Any help...

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llltkl | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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The test for halides is based upon the reaction between halide ions and silver nitrate in a nitric acid medium. The insoluble silver halides produce precipitates of defined colur and solubility. However, a  very low concentration of the reagents produces turbidity instead of the precipitate. A white precipitate, readily soluble in aqueous ammonia solution indicates chloride, a pale yellow precipitate, partly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution indicates bromide, and an yellow precipitate, insoluble in aqueous ammonia solution indicates iodide.

The advantages of this method of detection of halide ions are its simplicity of operation, high degree of sensitivity and reliability. The test being extremely sensitive has its disadvantage too. Thus a trace amount of chloride or chlorine in water interferes with the detection procedure. Also, the bromide and iodide colours and solubilities of their precipitates are hard to distinguish between these two, solely on this basis.