Please explain Polar Coordinates for the purposes of a school project?

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Simply put; polar coordinates are used to show how far away a point is and at what angle it is so, for example, you have the length of a diagonal line (r)and the angle formed ``   between the x-axis and the point

(r;`theta` ).You would convert using the cos or sin function depending on what you need to find.  





as opposed to what you are used to with x and y coordinates which measure how far up (on this graph 2) and how far across(4) rendering coordinates of (4;2).

Polar coordinates are used when solving for direction and length from a certain point.  Some otherwise complicated calculations for curves are simplified using polar coordinates. Thus, they are used to show

  how far away a point is and at what angle it is

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