Barthes's essay, "The Death of the Author," challenges the idea that the author is the one who we look to for the ultimate meaning of his or her text. He writes, "The explanation of a work is always sought in the man or woman who produced it, as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author 'confiding' in us." He suggests that reliance on the author is a bad thing, because it creates a hierarchal relationship, almost religious or capitalist in nature, where the "Author-God" controls the interpretation of the text. Instead, he prefers all meaning to come from readers, suggesting that the text means nothing until it is read. He concludes: "We know that to give writing its future, it is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author."
"Six Characters in Search of an Author" overlaps with these ideologies in the sense that the characters do not have fully fleshed out personalities and lives, so they are searching for an author to give them their meaning. I imagine that Barthes would urge these characters to find their own path, or, if this is not possible, he would say the director of the play or the audience should do so instead. In any case, the supremacy of the author would have to be dismantled, and he would find the very premise—that the characters are trying to access the author—to be problematic.