METAPHOR - in chapter 1, Digory tells Polly he is crying because he has been "brought up in a beastly hole like this" - he is referring to London.
PERSONIFICATION - in chapter 1, Digory tells Polly that he is freaked out by "Uncle Andrew's step" that comes creeping up the passageway" - this is giving life to the step
PERSONIFICATION - in chapter 1, when Digory and Polly find themselves in Uncle Andrew's study, Polly's "heart came into her mouth" - a way of saying that she was frightened, but a heart cannot come into one's mouth really
METAPHOR - When Uncle Andrew tells Digory he must go to the "Other" place with a green ring to bring Polly back, Digory realizes "the trap he is in" - he is not literally in a trap, but this metaphor means he has no choice - he must go to save Polly
Metaphors do NOT have the presence of the words 'like' or 'as' in the phrase AND there must be a comparison going on in the statement. So a metaphor would be like this: a wooden sign in a front yard that is in the shape of crows and they are dressed up like people. On the sign are the words "Two old crows live here" (metaphor) . The comparison is the old crows being compared to the elderly people living in the house WITHOUT the presence of the clue words 'like' or 'as'.Metaphors are statements calling one item something it would never be considered being called (the comparison). Metaphors require more thinking about what is actually being said and not a simple hunting for clue words to point them out. Similes are similar to metaphors in that they are also a comparison of 2 completely different things (Heart and Ice in "his heart was as cold as ice"), but the simple presence of the word "as" makes the statement a simile. I can make it a metaphor by rearranging words and removing the clue word ( "his heart was ice in his chest" ) and saying the one IS the other.