Has racial and gender equality been achieved in bureaucracies? Use an organization as an example. 

In most developed countries, federal law guarantees theoretical equality of opportunity among all races and genders. However, there is often a disparity between both opportunities and results, along with theory and practice. You can examine this by comparing the leadership of your university or school administration with the official policies governing recruitment and promotion.

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Answering this question requires a distinction between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome, followed by a further distinction between the way laws or policies work in theory and the way they operate in practice. In both cases, the first objective has generally been achieved in developed countries, such as...

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Answering this question requires a distinction between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome, followed by a further distinction between the way laws or policies work in theory and the way they operate in practice. In both cases, the first objective has generally been achieved in developed countries, such as the United States of America. This means that in theory there is no racial and gender discrimination in hiring and promotion policies, and that this would be illegal.

It is common to find, however, that bureaucracies which theoretically promote equality do not in fact contain proportions of women and ethnic minorities which reflect the general population. There are various reasons for this. First, if the policies are of fairly recent date, it will clearly take some time for them to have an effect. Second, there may be covert discrimination. Third, there may be unequal application levels (which is itself a topic requiring a great deal of further investigation). These are only three of many possible reasons.

You will presumably have your own ideas about the organization on which you are best-qualified to comment. Your university or school is an obvious choice. What is the composition of the leadership there? Does it reflect a policy of gender equality? In the case of a public institution, the policies in question should be freely available for you to compare with what you know of the results.

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