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To begin with, England does not have a constitution.
At one time the monarchy had unlimited power. Over time, their power was limited by various enactments of Parliament. The Magna Carta was the first document that began this process.
In reference to your specific Stuart kings, Charles I learned the hard way what it was like to go too far. His forces were defeated by Oliver Cromwell and the Round heads. He was put on trial and found guilty and beheaded. This break in the power of the monarchy was known as the Commonwealth. Eventually, the English people welcomed the Stuarts back to the throne aka the Restoration. Charles II became king but his power was reduced.
Whereas our government has a constitution, England has a series of documents which are their guidelines.
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