Let us try for three distinct, substantial literary devices used in the soliloquy from act 1, scene 5, of Hamlet.
Irony: Irony is the most prominent literary device in Hamlet's soliloquy. Obviously "irony" is a common word, and, in common usage, it has taken on a more general and complex meaning than it does in strict literary analysis. To keep things rigorous, we will go with Merriam-Webster's definition: 3(a): "incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result; an event or result marked by such incongruity."
Compared with the rest of the play, the whole of this soliloquy is true, textbook irony. Hamlet is fiery here, confronted with a terrible injustice and inspired to right it through revenge. He calls on all considerations of his past life to be swept aside:
Yea, from the table of my memory I'll wipe away all trivial fond records, all saws of books, all forms, all pressures past, that youth and observation copied there; and thy commandment...
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