Why was the Grange created?a. to fight big government. b. to provide shelter during winters on the plains. c. originally as a social organization for farmers. d. for all the above reasons.
The best answer to this question would be answer choice C, though it downplays the political mission of the Grange as it was originally founded. It was, in a sense, a social group, but it was also founded to advocate for the rights of farmers. Oliver Hudson Kelley, who toured the South during Reconstruction on behalf of the US Bureau of Agriculture, believed that farmers' interests might be served by a national organization. The Grange was formed in the late 1860s, and became a powerful voice nationwide, particularly on the issue of regulating the rapidly expanding railroads. Its influence was such that laws restricting railroad practices were known as "Granger laws." In short, its significance lay in its political advocacy for farmers, which was the primary reason for its founding, not whatever social function it also served. It was not founded to fight big government, and it was not a shelter. So C is the best, if not exactly an ideal, answer.