What is the significance of the mentioning of Golgotha in Scene 2 of Macbeth? Is it just a reference to the Crucifixion of Christ or is there more behind this literary allusion?
This mention of Golgotha is used to foreshadow Macbeth's fall. In the beginning, remember, he was a hero. Duncan still thinks he is a hero. He is described heroically here. In the end, there are bodies littered everywhere again.
The mentioning of Golgotha is to express the impact of the battle going on between the rebels and the Scots in the play, however it can also extend to the idea that Macbeth's murder of Duncan is just as great a deed as the death of Christ. The aftermath of the death of this king has just as large an impact on the country as the death of Christ had on the world.
The bleeding sergeant refers to Golgotha in Macbeth i.ii. Golgotha(Heb.) means 'place of skulls', and it alludes to the spot where public executions took place. Here the speaker mentions the name by way of a comment on the manner in which Duncan's generals, Macbeth & Banquo, unleashed wholesale violence upon their enemies so that the battle-field, strewn with skulls of dead soldiers would become another necropolis.
I have a feeling that it refers to the treachery that is about to transpire when Macbeth murders Duncan. Much like the treachery that led to the crucifixtion of Christ atop the hill known as Golgotha. Two Kings, one mortal and the other, what? supermortal, die either directly or indirectly at the hands of those closest to them, each a Judas in their own right.