The Golden Country in 1984 harkens back loosely to the account in Genesis in the Bible of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. This is mainly done through the pastoral setting, with its green leaves and the enchantingly beautiful song of the thrush. This land seems to Winston, both in his dream and the reality of his first tryst with Julia, to be a place that represents life before the "Fall," when the Party and its lies took over England.
We also, however, can't dismiss the idea that the Golden Country strongly alludes to "Old England." Winston wakes up from his dream of the Golden Country with the word "Shakespeare" on his lips, a clear hint that this country setting references pastoral landscapes in Shakespeare's plays. The play most appropriate would be As You Like It. The strong character of Rosalind is not unlike Julia, with Winston as Orlando. In both cases, 1984 and As You Like It, the pastoral setting has an illusory quality: behind the seeming beauty and escape one finds the reality that these are also dangerous places: for example, Orlando is threatened by an angry mother lion, and we later learn that 1984's "Golden Country" is rife with microphones and devices that record Julia and Winston's every move. Further, a fascination with Old England is part of Winston's psyche, as evidenced by his interest in the "Oranges and Lemons" rhyme.
The Golden Country is Winston's dreamlike world outside of the bustling, polluted city, where he is free to enjoy the natural environment and carry out his affair with Julia. The Golden Country is a tranquil pastoral landscape, where elm trees and willows peacefully sway in the breeze while water smoothly runs into natural pools. The Golden Country alludes to the Biblical Garden of Eden, which is depicted as paradise in the Book of Genesis. Also, Julia and Winston's relationship is likened to that of Adam and Eve, who were the first two humans created by God according to the Book of Genesis. Adam and Eve lived peaceful, comfortable lives in the Garden of Eden until they both ate from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and were expelled from paradise, which was an event known as the fall of man.
The Golden Country is an allusion to the Garden of Eden from the Bible.
Winston dreams of the Golden Country, which is a very Eden-like place where he sees a “girl with dark hair” (Ch. 3), who alludes to Even.
It was an old, rabbit-bitten pasture, with a foot-track wandering across it and a molehill here and there. … Somewhere near at hand, though out of sight, there was a clear, slow-moving stream where dace were swimming in the pools under the willow trees. (Ch. 3)
This idealized scene, and the woman reaching out to him, make Winston Adam and the girl with the black hair Eve. Winston has created a fantasy for himself of Biblical proportions, and Orwell is reminding us of Winston’s role in his society, especially later when Julia and Winston meet in a place that is very much like the Golden Country (Ch. 10).
Authors use allusions to place their characters in broader cultural themes. Most readers would recognize the connection between the Garden of Eden and the Golden Country, and the innocence and sin of both couples. The connection allows us to make a deeper meaning from a simple description that actually carries much more weight through the allusion.