There are numerous cases where the needs of the environment come into conflict with those of human beings, especially those in the developing world.
For instance, a multinational oil company might want to build a refinery in a developing country. Indeed, this is precisely what happened in Nigeria. Such a refinery is likely to provide well-paying jobs that are desperately needed by local people, most of whom will be very poor.
Yet at the same time, the projected oil refinery will almost certainly be responsible for toxic emissions that will cause massive air pollution in the area, damaging the health of the local population. In this particular scenario, a trade-off has to be made between employment opportunities and the wellbeing of the environment.
Another example of a conflict of values can be seen in the decision of the Trump Administration to allow drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). As well as providing more jobs, proponents of drilling argue that it will...
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