What reason does Macbeth give for why Banquo should be killed in Macbeth?

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In addition to feeling bitter as a result of Banquo's prophecy—that he would father kings—Macbeth resents Banquo's noble character.  He says,

Our fears in Banquo
Stick deep, and in his royalty of nature
Reigns that which would be feared. (3.1.51-53)

Macbeth claims that Banquo is wise and courageous without being reckless.  In short, Banquo conducts himself with honor, like Duncan or any good monarch would do.  Macbeth fears that Banquo's "royalty of nature" will pose a threat to him, and so it is one reason Macbeth has to order the murder of his former best friend.

Further, Macbeth is bitter as a result of the idea that he will not pass his crown on to his own children (he has none); that he, instead, has saddled his own conscience in order to secure the throne for the descendants of Banquo.  He says,

For Banquo’s issue have I filed my mind;
For them the gracious Duncan have I murdered;
Put rancors in...

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