Give me information about introduction of the second half of 20th century in the field of the novel
The second half of the twentieth century was a period of great thinkers who began to probe beneath the hidden face of power. Sociologist, anthropologists, linguists, philosophers all contributed to create a hermeneutic of suspicion. For this reason all knew that there was more than meets the eye. For example, governments spin ideology and science is not objective. So, the idea of what is "true" began to be challenged. It was a time of deconstructing what people ordinarily took for granted. To put it another way, there was a shift from a modern worldview with strong claims in practically every area to a post-modern worldview with little basis for strong claims other than that there are no strong claims. All of this had a profound influence on the novel. Think of how many conspiracy theory books have been written, as an example.
Science fiction literature that was brought out in the latter half of the 20th century focused on the encroachment of the state. On some levels, this would have to be fostered by the emergence of the Cold War. For example, Bradbury's short story of "All Summer in a Day," displays the terror of the community and what happens when individuals lack an institutional check against this larger body's encroachment. The growth of science fiction followed this idea of being able to set up different worlds to explore ideas present on planet Earth. Heightened by the Space Race and the exploration of other worlds, Science Fiction writers did not focus as much attention on "bug -eyed aliens" as much as how displaying life in other worlds could have relevancy to this one. Authors such as Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov developed ideas that displayed other worlds with issues strikingly similar to this one.