Give at least one nontrivial and proper subgroup of the set of residue classes modulo 13 additive group.

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Borys Shumyatskiy | College Teacher | (Level 3) Associate Educator

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It's impossible. Let's prove by contradiction. Suppose that such a subgroup exists. Denote the entire group as G and the subgroup as G1.

G1 is nontrivial, so there is g1ϵG1, g1≠0. G1 is also proper, so there is g2ϵG\G1.

g1 and 13 are pairwise coprime because 13 is prime. So we can apply the Chinese remainder theorem with k=2, n1=g1, n2=13, a1=0 and a2=g2.

So by the theorem there is integer x such that
x ≡ 0 mod g1 AND x ≡ g2 mod 13.

x ≡ 0 mod g1 means that there is integer m such that x = m*g1. Then x = g1 + g1 + ... + g1 (m times) so (x mod 13)ϵG1. But also (x mod 13) = (g2 mod 13) which is NOT in G1.
So we have a contradiction.

Answer: no such subgroup.
(of course 13 could be replaced by any prime number)

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