Please give information on Harappan civilisationof the Indus Valley.
The Harappan Civilization is the earliest known civilization in the Indus River Valley of India. The name is derived from Harappa, one of the cities in the area. The people who comprised that society were known as Dravidians. Little is known of the society as their language has not yet been deciphered, and many of their cities and other artifacts are under water. What is known is that the society was relatively complex. Its cities had roads and streets built on a grid system; there were at least two major cities with walls, a citadel and granary; and that they were among the first civilizations to domesticate chickens. There is evidence of trade with other early civilizations in Mesopotamia and that considerable wealth was accrued. Many homes had showers and flush toilets that emptied into a central sewer system, something not frequently seen in early societies. There is no concrete information on their religious practice, but it appears to involve some type of fertility practice with a deity represented by a bull.
The society apparently declined as a result of deforestation as land was cleared to grow food for a growing population. The land in the area today still requires extensive irrigation to be arable.
People enjoy a comfortable life with a variety of luxuries like ornaments in agate and gold, cosmetics (kajal) and elaborate toys for children. Painting on pottery is skillful and covers various themes while small sculptures in terracotta (animals, toys), soft stone (bearded man) and metal jewels abound.The city of Mohenjo Daro is testimony to the town planning activities of the IVC. Cities are divided into lower dwellings & the Citadel which houses important buildings. The streets form a grid system and are of modulated width. Bricks of fixed sizes are used for building Buildings in the lower area are rather monotonous, being mainly functional rather than decorative. But many houses are 2 storeyed. Great Bath: Mohenjo Daro has a sophisticated system of water supply & drainage and its brickwork, is highly functional and the amazing part of it is - that it is completely waterproof. The granaries are also intelligently constructed, with strategic airducts and platform are divided into units.
The Dock at Lothal is to be used for inland & foreign trade.Human dieties include a "proto type of Shiva" and a mother goddess. Animal symbols such as the bull and unicorn and those of tree spirits and water dieties are also common.
The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that ofMehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh. The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo-daro (which means "mound of the dead") in Sindh near Sukkur, and Harappa, in west Punjab south of Lahore. A number of other sites stretching from the Himalayan foothills in east Punjab, India in the north, to Gujarat in the south and east, and to Balochistan in the west have also been discovered and studied. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad (as part of the Sind and Punjab Railway), used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts has nevertheless been found.The bricks discovered were made of red sand, clay,stones & were baked at very high temperature.