Pavlov's formula is fairly easily summed up. Essentially, an "unconditional stimulus" in the form of food occasioned salivation in his dogs. Pavlov called this a "basic reflex," and the animals did not need training to learn it, as it was instinctive. This basic reflex would thus be replicated when a bell, or a "conditional stimulus" was added to the food. It was rung repeatedly just before the dogs were fed. Eventually after repetition, the dogs learned to salivate whenever the researchers rung the bell, because they minds associated it with food. This was known as a "conditioned reflex."