A novel is a work of fiction in prose. The following are the essential elements of a novel:
a) Story> a novel tells us a story in the form of a narrative;
b) Narrative Mode> the mode in which the story is told--by a narrator in the first person, or by a second/third person narrator; there may also be more than one narrators;
c) Plot> the structure/organization of the narrative; there may be just one plot, or one main plot with one or more sub-plots;
d) Characterization> personages as they are presented in the novel; chracters may be 'round'/'flat', 'static'/'dynamic', 'types'/'individuals'; how the chracters behave, cofront one another, develope in the course of the plot;
e) Setting> whatever happens, happens at a place; it is called the setting; often the setting contributes to the bahaviour of the characters, becomes more than a mere place;
f) Style, Tone, Language> these are also very significant elements in the making of a novel.