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Blood pressure is the pressure formed by the pumping of the blood through the blood vessels by the heart. There are several factors that can influence it. We will look at each of your listed factors below.
Cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped through the system and is measured by multiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume. An increase in the cardiac output would therefore happen with an increase in the heart rate which could be brought on by vigorous physical activity such as exercise or a rise in a person's stress level.
Peripheral resistance is the frictional force encountered by the blood as it travels through the blood vessels. Blood vessels with larger diameters and smoother walls will produce a smaller resistance than constricted blood vessels with deposits along the walls. Fat and cholesterol deposits within artery walls will increase peripheral resistance.
Blood volume is the total amount of blood present in the circulatory system. A diet high in salt can increase the blood volume, thereby increasing blood pressure since the volume of the blood vessels is unchanged.
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