illustration of Ebenezer Scrooge in silhouette walking toward a Christmas tree and followed by the three ghosts

A Christmas Carol

by Charles Dickens

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Give a summary of how Scrooge changes throughout A Christmas Carol

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Throughout the book, Ebenezer Scrooge is initially shown as tight-fisted and closed up, but after being forced to confront his past and admit to both making mistakes and being hurt, he becomes generous, open, and appreciative. Along the way, Scrooge is first visited by his now-deceased partner, Jacob Marley, then guided and challenged by three ghosts, who present distinct scenarios that show him Christmas as it was, as it is, and—in a frightening scenario—what it will turn into if he does not change his ways. The elderly Scrooge is first presented as a tyrannical boss who not only fails to appreciate the good work of his clerk, Bob Cratchit, but also utterly lacks empathy for his difficult family situation, as one of the Cratchit children has a disability.

As the novella progresses, the reader learns that Scrooge was once sociable until he became a greedy businessman, which contributed to having his heart broken by his fiancée when she broke off their engagement. He also misses his dead sister, whose son has tried to retain familial ties. Ultimately, Scrooge comes to occupy an uncle-like position to Cratchit’s young son, Tiny Tim, as well as being welcomed into their family

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