I have to add to the list American Psycho. While the disorders that Patrick Bateman never admits to a mental illness, one definitely exists. The only other novel I can think of is the novel Three by Ted Dekker. This novel is one featuring multipersonality disorder.
I cannot think of any other books which have a male protagonist; female protagonists are far more typical: The Three Faces of Eve and Sybil.
For fiction books, the first thing that comes to mind for me is the classic One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. In the case of nonfiction, I am not sure if you want a first-person narrative, but Carrie Fisher’s Wishful Drinking is a frank and humorous portrayal of living with Bipolar Disorder. A Beautiful Mind is not told from the first-person point of view, but it depicts schizophrenia well.