In Goldstein's book that Winston Smith obtains from O'Brien, he reads about the nature of Oceania's authoritative regime and its affinity for absolute power. Winston goes on to read about the four different ways that an elite group can fall from power, which are as follows:
1. The elite group is conquered from the outside by another nation. Typically, a nation is attacked and proceeds to acquiesce its territory to the victor.
2. An elite group can also fall from power by governing so inefficiently that the disgruntled, oppressed masses come together and revolt against the hegemony.
3. Another way that an elite group can fall from power is by allowing a strong discontented middle group or class to develop and grow.
4. The fourth way that an elite group can fall from power is by losing their self-confidence and willingness to govern altogether.
In "The Book," which lays out the nature of power as the Party understands it, the world is divided into three classes, the high, the middle and the low. The...
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