What answers could be given for the following geology multiple choice questions ( the picture is for the p and s wave question): Regional elevation is controlled by which of the following: all...

What answers could be given for the following geology multiple choice questions ( the picture is for the p and s wave question):

Regional elevation is controlled by which of the following:

all of these factors control regional elevation

temperature of the crust

density of the crust

thickness of the crust

thickness and temperature of the crust

Which of the following is true of earthquakes occurring around a subduction zone?

All of these statements are true of earthquakes around subduction zones.

Shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes will occur.

The depth pattern of earthquakes can be used to determine which way the slab is inclined.

Shallow earthquakes will be nearer to the plate boundary than the deeper ones.

The area has the potential for large earthquakes.

Why is it important to study prehistoric earthquakes?

There are no modern earthquakes to study, so prehistoric earthquakes are the only ones that may provide data to scientists.

They provide the most accurate data from seismometers and therefore the best seismographs.

All of these are important reasons to study prehistoric earthquakes.

Modern earthquakes are all much smaller than prehistoric earthquakes and cannot provide details about larger seismic events.

To determine the recurrence intervals and likely size of earthquakes to help people in a region plan for future seismic events.

Which of the following is true of the Richter scale?

It cannot be a basis for comparison of one earthquake to another because it is measured at each point on the Earth.

all of these

It provides information about the amount of damage an earthquake has done to buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure.

It is an exponential scale; a step of one number corresponds to an increase of 30 times in energy release.

It is a linear scale; an 8 earthquake is twice as strong as a 4 earthquake.

Shown in the diagram above, the time delay between the arrival of the two sets of body waves (P and S) from a distant earthquake at a seismograph:

All of these statements are true.

Increases with the distance from the earthquake to the seismograph.

Depends upon the size of the earthquake.

Becomes less if the waves pass through the core.

Helps to determine the sense of motion along the fault (e.g. normal or reversed) where the earthquake occurred.

Which of the following is NOT a common factor involved in metamorphism?

New, higher heat conditions than those the rock was initially formed under

New, higher pressure conditions than those the rock was initially formed under

melting of a rock to produce flow structures

recrystallization of a rock to form bands of light and dark minerals

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Ashley Kannan | Middle School Teacher | (Level 3) Distinguished Educator

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In any multiple choice question, the need for establishing "right" answers is critical.  Since you are operating in this capacity, it is essential for you to use you resources in generating your answers.  Your course text, instructor notes, and lectures will be vital in assisting you.  While we here at enotes can give you insight and substantiate our findings with websites to help you, in the end, your notes are going to be critical.  The instructor is assessing you based on right/ wrong answers.  The information they have provided you in this regard is how they judge your answers.  Use what is here for what it is worth.  Yet, I strongly advise you to go back to your text, notes, and resources provided by your instructor to assist your answering multiple choice questions.  Should there be any conflict between what is presented in what your instructor has given you and any insight you seek anywhere else, go with what your instructor's resources to resolve the issue because that is how you will be assessed in terms of answers being right or wrong.

Regional elevation is controlled by a variety of factors.  The fact that it is so diverse and seen in different parts of the Earth help to communicate the number of factors that impact it.  The thickness of the Earth's crust, as well as the density and temperature of materials in the crust help to influence regional elevation.  In this light, all of the factors featured play a varying role in establishing regional elevation of a particular region.  This same type of analysis can be seen in terms of subduction zones.  The concept of subduction zones involves different elements being integrated together. Subduction zones are areas of convective accumulation of convergent materials around the Earth's crust and upper mantle.  This means that earthquakes in these areas are reflective of a variety of realities.  The three different types of earthquakes can occur as a result of plate convergence in subduction zones, enabling shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes to occur.  At the same time, the subduction zone area has potential for large earthquakes.  This is because of the strains that are caused by high level of plate convergence in subduction zones.  Given that these elements are true and that there are no other extenuating options, we can presume that all of the given options can be seen as accurate regarding subduction zones.  

The study of paleoseismology focuses on geological evidence for past earthquakes.  Examining paleontological earthquake experiences can prove to be very compelling in understanding how modern formation of the Earth transpires:

The study of geological evidence for past earthquakes. This scientific discipline has contributed greatly to modern understanding of the nature of earthquakes. The patterns of earthquakes, in both space and time, evolve over centuries and millennia and cannot be discovered by modern instruments. Knowledge of these patterns is important for understanding the physics of earthquakes and for forecasting future destructive earthquakes.

It is in this light where the study of prehistoric earthquakes is relevant in order to determine the recurrence intervals and likely size of earthquakes to help people in a region plan for future seismic events.

The Richter Scale is a challenging question.  There are some wording issues that might get in the way of a clear answer being chosen.  The first item to establish is that the Richter Scale is not linear.  It is reflective of an exponential and logarithmic understanding.  Thus, an 8 reading is not directly double of a 4.  The reason for this is the construction of the scale relative to earthquake readings:

The Richter Scale, which measures magnitude, is the one most often used by the media to convey to the public the size of an earthquake. Magnitude is easier to determine than intensity, since it is registered on seismic instruments, but it does present some difficulties. While an earthquake can have only one magnitude, it can have many intensities which affect different communities in different ways. Thus, two earthquakes with an identical Richter magnitude may have widely different maximum intensities at different locations.

Such an understanding reflects how there is variance in the reading, preventing a full linearity from being embraced.  Along these lines, "an earthquake that registers 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times greater than that of an earthquake that registered 4.0, and thus corresponds to a release of energy 31.6 times greater than that released by the lesser earthquake."  This would challenge the "30 times" reading of one of the options.  Additionally, the reading of how one sees "different communities" would drive whether or not the Richter Scale measures readings from different parts of the Earth.  I think that the one clear answer presented is the idea that the Richter Scale provides information about the amount of damage an earthquake has done to buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure.  I like the exponential answer, but the clinging to numbers is a challenge.  At the same time, I don't think that it's a linear scale, thus it could not be "all of the above." 

When examining the chart, a couple of items must be understood. Earthquakes produce all three types of seismic waves: P waves, S waves, and surface waves. At the same time, the movement of waves is an important issue because "each wave's arrival depends on the distance to the earthquake." Using this information, I think that you can examine the chart and look at how the relationship between S and P waves can calculate the distance to a particular earthquake.  From this, one can also read into its sense of motion.   In terms of the metamorphism question, we are examining a change in rocks.  Metamorphism involves high temperature and high pressure in order to develop a new formation in the rock.  This process takes extremes to transpire in terms of all of the elements.  The presence of light and dark minerals in the recrystallization of the rock into a new mineral assemblage is not a precondition involved in metamorphism as temperature, pressure, and the resultant melting process.  It is here in which I would suggest that recrystallization of a rock to form bands of light and dark minerals is not a common factor involved in metamorphism.  

There is much presented here.  I would take what is offered and then cross check it back with your instructor's lectures, notes, and any text or course handouts you might have.  

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