Geography of indian subcontinentwhat were the challenges that the geography of the indian subcontinent presented as impediments to the imperial ambitions of the Guptas and the Mughals?
Geography is always a key factor that can help or hinder empire building, and is a pivotal challenge for any would be Napoleons. In this specific case, the vast territory of the Indian subcontinent because of its size is something that presented an impediment to the two civilisations that you mention. Have a look at the following link for more information:
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The Indian sub-continent has a few natural entrance points. Over half the area that lies at the bottom is protected by the Indian Ocean and the Himalayan mountain range on the top was quite difficult to cross in the past for a large part of the year. This allowed entrance either using ships or an army could enter from a small area on the North-West. This posed as an impediment both for Mughals who wanted to enter into the region and the Guptas who wanted to spread their dominion outside.
The Indian subcontinent is peninsular in nature, extending toward the Indian Ocean and between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. It is a diamond shaped South Asian region bordered by the Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Arakanese. It is home to about 34% of Asia’s population.