Gel electrophoresis, what is it? How do enzymes work in relation to it? Thank you !

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bandmanjoe eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Gel electophoresis is a method or process that uses a gel matrix to separate molecules of differing size and charge.  There is an electric current that is conducted through the gel matrix, and the molecules migrate to the anode if they are negative and migrate to the cathode if they are positive.  This process can be used to separate strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), amino acids, enzymes, and other related molecular substances.  This migration that occurs through the gel matrix is dependent on the size and charge of the respective molecules.  Gel phoresis is a technique used in DNA technology to identify persons of interest by DNA samples.  It is also used extensively in various areas of genetic engineering, as scientists try to isolate and extrapolate various DNA sections they wish to insert or delete into the genetic sequence of organisms they are trying to cultivate specific desirable traits in.