What are the functions of the different organelles of the cell?

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Organelles are components of a cell to which a function or role can be assigned. Depending on whether the cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, the organelle may be different.

Functions of different cell organelles:

  • Nucleus: contains all the genetic material, acts as information center and tells all the organelles what to do, RNA transcription.
  • Mitochondria: generates energy through respiration
  • Endoplasmic recticulum (rough): transport and storage of material; (smooth ER): creation of lipids and fats
  • Ribosome: protein creation by RNA translation 
  • Golgi apparatus: responsible for synthesis, packing and processing of proteins
  • Chloroplast: responsible for glucose creation (by photosynthesis)
  • Cytoplasm: is region where all chemical reactions take place
  • lysosome: responsible for breakdown of larger molecules
  • Flagellum (or flagella): tail like organelle, assists motion
  • Vacuole: helps in maintenance of homeostasis
  • cell membrane: separates cell from the rest of the environment
  • cytoskeleton: supports cell structure

There are a number of other organelles as well.

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