From which Shakespearean work does the quote below come and what are the circumstances in which it is spoken?
No, not all these, thrice-gorgeous ceremony,
Not all these, laid a bed majestical,
Can sleep so soundly as the wretched slave,
Who, with body filled, and a vacant mind,
Gets him to rest, crammed with distressful bread....
The lines you cite here are from the play Henry V. They are spoken in Act IV, Scene 1 of that play. The lines are spoken by the King himself.
The context here is that Henry has just gotten finished going among his soldiers disguised as a common soldier. He wants to find out what the soldiers are thinking and he wants to encourage them.
After he speaks to a number of soldiers, he speaks a soliloquy on the nature of kingship and how hard it is to be a king and a leader. The lines you cite are taken from that soliloquy.