The periodic table is a systematic arrangement of the elements. They are arranged according to their atomic number, the number of protons (which in the case of atoms is also the number of electrons) of each atom.
Some of the properties of the elements can be predicted given their location in the periodic table. For instance, the reactivity of atoms is associated with the number of electrons, and therefore, reactivity of some atoms can be predicted based on their location on the periodic table. To cite a few examples, elements belonging to the second column (Group 2) usually form +2 ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, and hence, when reacted with, say OH-, forms Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2. This being said, elements belonging to the same group have the same number of valence electrons, the outermost electrons involved in chemical reactions. All elements in Group 18, as another example, are noble gases, and are hence mostly inert - these elements all have a complete octet (8 valence electrons), and are therefore, already stable on their own. This is probably the most useful property that can be predicted from the location of an element in the periodic table. However, there's also what is known as the Law of Triads established by Dobereiner, in which it was shown that some elements can be grouped in threes. For instance, in Group 1, Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium can be classified as a triad of reactive metals. In this particular triad, the atomic weight of the middle element (sodium in this case) is the average of the 1st (Li) and 3rd (K) element. There are a few other of these triads, and they can occur either in a column or group as illustrated here, or in rows (try carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen).
There are also trends in the periodic table - ionization energy, which increases from left to right, for instance, due to number of electrons and protons in a given atom, or atomic size which increases from top to bottom due to the 'size' of orbitals. These arise from the number of protons (and electrons), which, again, is the basis for the arrangement of the periodic table.
The chemical name of an element cannot be predicted from the periodic table. Chemical names are given to elements as they are discovered. Sometimes these are written in periodic tables, but often times the chemical symbol - or the shorthand name of that particular element - is what is written in the periodic table. Usually, it is easy to determine (or memorize) the names and symbols of elements - for instance, C stands for Carbon, Ne for Neon, F for Fluorine. Other times, these are not so obvious - as in Cs for Cesium, or Pt for Platinum. Still, other cases are more difficult, especially when symbols are based off Latin names instead of the common names - as in Ag for Silver (Argentum) or W for Tungsten (Wolfram). The periodic table is a way to organize these elements, and is not a way to predict chemical name and symbol.
Finally, while it might appear that some of the elements in the lower portion of the periodic table (the UU series, for instance) are more recently discovered than the upper portion, this is not actually the case. Take for example, Uuo and Uup (elements, 118 and 115, respectively). Uuo was discovered in 1999 while Uup in 2004. Again, the periodic table is arranged in order of atomic number and not in order of discovery.
In brief, the periodic table is a systematic arrangement of elements, and this arrangement is based off their atomic numbers. Elements belonging to the same group have, usually, similar properties, and there are usually trends that can be extrapolated from their sequence in the rows and columns (so-called periodic trends). This being said, certain generalizations can be made and some chemical properties predicted.
From the location of elements in the periodic table you can predict it's properties.
The elements are arranged in the modern periodic table in the order of increasing atomic number. The rows are called periods and the columns, groups. The Periodic Law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic way when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. A combination of these two facts requires that the physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic way, as a function of their position in the periodic table. The columns club such 'similarly behaving' elements together and are called groups or families. These elements have the same number of electrons in their outermost (valence) shells. Examples are the halogens, the chalcogens, the carbon family, the alkali metals, etc.
From elements location in the periodic table you can only predict its properties. For example we know that elements that are in the same group will react similar as well as have similar physical properties. This is why we Alkaline earth metals that are high reactive and Nobles gases that are low on reacting. You can also tell the electronegativity, and atomic radii of an element just by using the trends across the period and the groups. It would be difficult to know the name of the chemical and the symbol unless you have the table memorized as to where each element goes. Also unless you know each element individually you can't tell when it was discovered just by using the periodic table do you know long took for the periodic table to even look like what it does today? haha
The correct answer is 1) its properties.
The periodic table organizes the elements into columns (called groups) based on the number of valence electrons that each element has. Valence electrons are the electrons (negatively charged subatomic particles) on the outermost energy level of the element in its standard state. These electrons, since they are on the outside, determine the type of bonding that can occur with the atom and as such dictate the properties of the element. For example, all of the elements on the far right group of the periodic table have a full outer energy level (8 electrons). As such, they do not easily bond with other atoms and are very stable.
From elements location in the periodic table you can predict?
2.It's chemical name
3.It's chemical symbol
4.when it was discovered
You can determine, or at least predict, the properties of elements based on where they are positioned in the Periodic Table. The link below should help you with regards to those properties.