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Freud and his followers assumed they could derive general principles of personality by studying patients in therapy, that childhood traumas inevitably have lifelong emotional consequences, and that memories are reliable guides to the past. Explain what is wrong with these assumptions.

Each of these assumptions generalizes on the basis of inadequate date and thus they are all errors in use of induction.

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The attempt to generalize about the nature of personality by studying patients in therapy ignores the question of what makes an adequate sample. Freud's patients were upper and upper middle class Europeans. They were far from a universal sample of the world's population but instead represent a very narrow subset of humanity making it difficult to gauge whether their characteristics were true of people in general or merely represent an expression of a particular culture at a particular time and...

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