Planning, leading, organizing, and controlling are the four key elements of any management process, and the health-care setting is no different. For the purposes of this answer, I will apply these elements to the environment of a hospital, as this is where most health-care management training programs take place.
Planning, in the context of a hospital, is about looking to the future and analyzing new medicinal techniques that are becoming available. The purpose of this planning is to make sure that the hospital is still taking as good of care of its patients in the future as it is now.
Leading is about being a decision-maker and providing a voice of authority that all doctors, nurses and other personnel listen to. Management needs to listen to the concerns of the medical professionals, because it is only by listening to their needs that the needs of patients will be met.
Organizing is about making sure that the current needs of the hospital and its staff are being met. Have the staff lists been done? Are the medicine stocks high enough? Are emergency protocols in place? These are the types of questions that hospital management needs to ask in their role as organizer.
Controlling, in the context of a hospital, is about ensuring that everybody is doing their job and that everything is being done according to accepted protocols. Controlling involves investigating any allegations of malpractice or negligence that arise and ensuring the overall smooth running of the hospital.