Since we are only allowed to answer one question at a time, I had to edit your question.
"The Ballad of Birmingham," by Dudley Randall, is based on the traditional English folk ballad. It has many of the components of a ballad: it tells a story, it concerns events that most people are aware of, it is written in a simple, easy to understand style. Further, like many English ballads, it uses a question/answer format, at least in the first four stanzas. The daughter questions the mother and the mother responds. We see this form in other ballads such as "Lord Randall."
Even its poetic structure is that of a ballad: four-line stanzas with the second and fourth lines rhyming.
The poem's structure produces a highly ironic and shocking ending showing that in a racist world there are no safe places for children.