The formation of newly formed volcanic island is an example of: a. bioinvasion b. ecosystem c. primary succession d. secondary succession.

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The community development in a newly formed volcanic island is an example of primary succession since the development takes place on an area that is devoid of any previous ecosystem element. Another example of primary succession would be in a region formed by retreating glacier. Secondary succession, on the other hand, takes place when soil is still there, but the vegetation has been disturbed (or destroyed) by something like fire or flooding. Bioinvasion is the invasion or intrusion of a region by non-native species (flora and fauna). This is done, typically, by human action and results in severe disturbance to an existing ecosystem (which newly formed volcanic island is not). An ecosystem is composed of biotic and abiotic factors interacting with each other, something a newly formed volcanic island is devoid of. 

Hence, option C- Primary Succession is correct.

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