Nathaniel Hawthorne uses many different figures of speech in his short story The Birthmark. In the first paragraph where Georgiana enters the boudoir, one can find an example of imagery, a metaphor, and an allusion (all definitions of the literary terms used come from the eNotes site).
Imagery: "the forming of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things."
An example of imagery is found in the first sentence of the paragraph (detailed above).
When Georgiana recovered consciousness she found herself breathing an atmosphere of penetrating fragrance, the gentle potency of which had recalled her from her deathlike faintness.
Here, Hawthorne is providing the reader with a very specific appeal to a specific sense: the sense of smell. An engaged reader can be expected to be found breathing in deeply expecting to smell the same scent Georgiana.
Metaphor: "a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to a person, idea, or object to which it is not literally applicable."
An example of a metaphor is found in the following line: "it might be a pavilion among the clouds." The comparison is made between the boudoir and a place one would find in the clouds.
Allusion: "a reference, usually brief, often casual, occasionally indirect, to a person , event, or condition thought to be familiar (but sometimes actually obscure or unknown) to the reader."
The allusion in the text is also the metaphor from above. One must have a knowledge of what is typically found on a pavilion in the clouds: gods. Therefore, if one knows that Zeus and the other gods lived in the clouds, surrounded by their pavilions, one can appreciate the passage in a whole different way. (It also compounds the metaphoric image of what the boudoir exists as.)