I think that there are two distinct challenges or potentially negative trends that emerge from "the rise of the rest." Zakaria articulates a new landscape different than anything previously understood or envisioned. Accordingly, the challenges that these issues present are ones which Zakaria feel must be acknowledged. One such fear is posed by fundamentalist groups who want to gain more power. Zakaria argues that in a world where traditional polarities are absent, fundamentalist groups, such as Islamic militants, have to be understood in a setting where there is a "rise of the rest:"
The threats we face are real. Islamic jihadists are a nasty bunch—they do want to attack civilians everywhere. But it is increasingly clear that militants and suicide bombers make up a tiny portion of the world’s 1.3 billion Muslims. They can do real damage, especially if they get their hands on nuclear weapons. But the combined efforts of the world’s governments have effectively put them on the run and continue to track them and their money. Jihad persists, but the jihadists have had to scatter, work in small local cells, and use simple and undetectable weapons. They have not been able to hit big, symbolic targets, especially ones involving Americans.
In some respects, Zakaria might be correct, especially when seeing the emergence of groups like the Islamic state and the Taliban. Zakaria believes that as traditional powers exit the stage, there has to be a growing world awareness of ensuring that weapons of mass destruction do not fall into the hands of groups with narrow agendas. These agendas would go against the rise of globalization and market based economies which are emerging in the nations that constitute the "rise of the rest." Zakaria believes that all concerned nations must monitor this challenge or potentially negative trend.
As new nations emerge and new "players" in the world game of power and control develop, Zakaria suggests that there must be new international communities that seek to integrate new voices in the dialogue of world peace and harmony. Zakaria argues that the traditional structures such as the United Nations and G8 organizations might not be the most up to date model: "The fact that newly rising nations are more strongly asserting their ideas and interests is inevitable in a post-American world. This raises a conundrum—how to get a world of many actors to work together. The traditional mechanisms of international cooperation are fraying." Zakaria makes the claim that one of the challenges which awaits the new world order is how to generate world cooperation amongst new players. The "rise of the rest" cannot be at the cost of a communitarian sense of action. Zakaria argues that the rise of nationalism and zealous national identity can prove to be a challenge that has to be navigated in the world setting.