In "Fahrenheit 451," why hasn't Captain Beatty been punished if he's obviously a well read man?
We aren't told specifically how or why it is that Beatty is so well-read, but it is probably so that he can be better prepared to combat those who read. By knowing what is in books, specifically those things that are contradictory or that cause people to realize that there are things in the world in need of change, Beatty is better equipped to argue against books. Toward the end of the first section, "The Hearth and the Salamander", he says that books made people uneasy, and because of his extensive reading he can cite titles and examples. He has to know what is considered harmful about the books so that he can keep himself from being drawn into the books also. Probably, it comes down to: forewarned is being forearmed; i.e., Beatty can argue against reading better if he has read. Bradbury implies though that all this reading had the opposite effect on Beatty in the long run. In the second section, after Montag burns Beatty, Montag realizes that Beatty wanted to die. Perhaps the books had made Beatty aware that the world in which he lived was not the world in which he wanted to live because of the book banning.
There are several scenes in the novel where Captain Beatty illustrates that he is a well-read individual. While Captain Beatty is attempting to persuade Montag that reading and literature are detrimental to society and a waste of time, he mentions that his own reading experiences have left him feeling "bestial and lonely." Despite Captain Beatty's literary knowledge, he decides to join the fireman structure and believes that it is necessary to censor literature. One reason that could explain Captain Beatty's immunity concerns his decision to support the government's censorship efforts. It would make sense that the government would want a man who thoroughly understands literature working for them. The authorities might feel that Captain Beatty is experienced and insightful enough to track down literary dissidents and knows exactly where to look for them. Essentially, the government is using a former literary criminal (Captain Beatty) to catch other literary criminals. They also feel assured that Captain Beatty supports their cause because he is a jaded man who adamantly believes that literature is detrimental to society.