The medieval period was distinguished for several major innovation in philosophical thought. First, in the Latin west, it was a period that attempted a grand synthesis of philosophy with theology. In its later manifestations, it took many of the theories of Aristotle and applied them to interpreting sacred and secular texts to discover systematic religious truths.
The nominalist movement in medieval philosophy, and the emphasis on the liber mundi, is considered by many to have been the beginning of modern science.
The medieval period is sometimes known as the golden age of logic. Not only was neo-Aristotelian logic worked out in elaborate detail, but there were major innovations in informal logic and modal logic.