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In Twelve Angry Men, and in other trials, it is important that the jurors be sequestered for deliberation for several reasons. First, all the evidence that a person needs to make a decision is based on the trial. In other words, all the information is given. Outside interference, such as popular opinion, other cases, and the like must not have influence.
Second, from a more practical approach, the jurors need time alone to think about the evidence and time to deliberate together as a group. They need to ask each other question and bounce ideas off of each other. In Twelve Angry Men, only juror 8 was willing to look at matters more deeply. As he did this, he was able to persuade the other jurors that there was a real possibility that the young man did not kill his father. He would not have had this chance, if there was outside interference. He needed sustained time alone with the other jurors to make his case.
Trials are supposed to be conducted using only proper evidentiary procedures. The theory is that there are some kinds of evidence that will affect the jury in a way that is unfair to one of the trial participants. That's why judges go to such pains to make sure that evidence is appropriately gathered and presented. Evidence that is not properly gathered and presented is more likely to be inadmissable, because it may reflect negatively on the defendant, or sway the jury inappropriately.
If "outside" interference is permitted, the judge will lose control over the evidence and will not be able to insure that it is appropriately related to the trial proceedings.
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