Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth.
As a transcendentalist writer, Thoreau was frustrated with the focus of his society on material things, temporary pleasures, and immediate concern for things he considered frivolous. He was living in New England and wondering why life for Americans was looking so much like life did back in the England which they fled.
He was in search of a higher truth. But rather than turn to religion, as those from history had done (and in his mind, failed), and rather than turn to science, he turned to nature, and then turned inwardly. The conclusion of Walden is a simple summation what Thoreau believed to be truly important and an encouragement to his American readers to seek simple lives of gratitude over the desire for wealth and fame.
When he says, "The life in us is like the water in the river," he suggests that the power for change and the power for peace lies within each human, and nothing is gained by simply sitting around a dinner table and talking or complaining. In his comparisons of America to England, it is clear that he is a patriotic man who believes that America can and should be an independent country, with its own sense of personality and power, and he urges his contemporaries not to look to the traditional methods for gaining this personality and power.
Thoreau concludes his Conclusion with the belief that the resurrection of humanity will occur. He speaks of the life within us that is like water that is about to rise higher than it ever has before. He then speaks of a new and wondrous bug that came out of a wooden table belonging to a farmer after the bug had burrowed in the wood for untold years. He feels that people, like the bug who was long buried, will arise out of the dullness of society. He likens the dullness and deadliness of society to the stifling layers of wood that surrounded this bug and states that people can find their way out of this wood to find something greater. While he does not think every person will realize the greatness of which humans are capable, he feels that a brighter and longer day will eventually arise on earth.