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Khaled Hosseini’s personal heritage and experiences strongly influenced his decision to write The Kite Runner, which was his first novel, and the views of both Afghanistan and the United States that he presents in the novel. As noted on his personal website, both his parents were born and raised in Afghanistan and were highly educated. He was born in Kabul and lived there until he was eleven years old. One significant impact was that, after the family had lived in Paris for four years, they were unable to return to Afghanistan because of the 1990 Soviet invasion. Instead of returning, they were granted political asylum and settled in the United States—in California, as did Amir and his father. Hosseini actually graduated from medical school; he had been a medical doctor for two decades when the book was published. While writing the novel, he could not travel to his home country, so his perspective was strongly influenced by the impressions formed in his childhood as well as his relatives’ and fellow Afghans’ views.
In interviews he has given, such as with Goodreads in 2013 (quoted here), Hosseini has stated that his writing about Afghanistan in the 1990s under the Taliban and afterward
is made of a composite of vignettes and stories that I've heard from Afghanistan during that era, either from Afghans in exile who came from there[.]
With his first return visit in 2003, living most of his life in the United States has strongly influenced his ability to feel at home in Afghanistan.
And walking on the streets down there, I look like those people and I know their language, I can speak with them, but there's no question that I'm an outsider. I feel it and they smell it on me immediately, because I don't have the whiff of all those experiences that they've had.